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Targeting

Malaria is the most common reason given for illness and admission to hospital in many African countries. However, malaria is often overdiagnosed or misdiagnosed in the absence of proper testing. 

Useful resources | Peer-reviewed publications | Projects | News

Useful resources

Training manuals: Use of artemisinin-based combination therapies and rapid diagnostic tests for home-based management of fever in Uganda

Resource to train community health workers on the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests and fever management.


Training manuals of drug shop trial in Uganda

Use of rapid diagnostic tests by drug shop vendors to improve malaria treatment


Training manuals from REACT study in Cameroon

The REACT Facilitator and Participant Manuals on improving malaria diagnosis and treatment


Training health workers to improve malaria diagnosis in Cameroon and Nigeria (Policy Brief)

REACT Policy Brief


Tinkering and Tailoring: Use of medicines and rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by private providers in Cambodia


TACT trainer and trainee manuals and patient leaflet

The TACT training manuals and patient leaflet were designed to support the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).


REACT Summary of Qualitative results - Cameroon Sept 2010


Prospectus du patient et manuels du formateur et du stagiaire pour TACT

Le prospectus du patient et les manuels de formation pour TACT ont été conçus pour faciliter l’utilisation des tests de dépistage rapide du paludisme (RDT).


PRIME trainer and learner manuals

Nine new workshops, focused on Health Centre Management and Patient Centred Services.


Policy Brief PRIME & PROCESS

Evaluating the impact of a public health centre intervention on management of malaria and health outcomes of children in Uganda: Results from the PRIME & PROCESS studies


Policy brief for IMPACT2 project

Evaluating policies in Tanzania to improve malaria diagnosis and treatment


Policy brief for Afghanistan study

Community Case Management of Malaria in Afghanistan


Policy brief and posters for community management project in Uganda

Use of rapid diagnostic tests to improve malaria treatment in the community in Uganda


Manuels de formation pour l'étude REACT au Cameroun

Les manuels du formateur et du participant REACT sur l'amélioration du dépistage et du traitement du paludisme


Manuels de formation de l'étude en pharmacie en Ouganda

Utilisation des tests de dépistage rapide par les pharmaciens afin d'améliorer le traitement du paludisme


Manuels de formation : utilisation des combinaisons thérapeutiques à base d'artémisinine et des tests de dépistage rapide pour la prise en charge à domicile de la fièvre en Ouganda

Ressource pour former les personnels de santé communautaires à l'utilisation des tests de dépistage rapide du paludisme et à la prise en charge de la fièvre.


Manuais TACT para formadores e formandos e folheto TACT para pacientes

Os manuais de formação TACT e o folheto TACT para pacientes foram concebidos para promover a utilização dos testes de diagnóstico rápido (RDT) da malária.


Manuais de formação: Utilização de terapias combinadas à base de artemisina e de testes de diagnóstico rápido para a gestão domiciliária da febre no Uganda

Recurso para ministrar formação aos funcionários dos serviços de saúde comunitário sobre a utilização de testes de diagnóstico rápido para a malária e sobre a gestão dos estados febris.


Manuais de formação para ensaio realizado em postos de venda de medicamentos no Uganda

Utilização de testes de diagnóstico rápido por vendedores de postos de venda de medicamentos para melhorar o tratamento da malária


Manuais de formação do estudo REACT realizado nos Camarões

Manuais REACT para formadores e participantes sobre a melhoria do diagnóstico e tratamento da malária


Malaria in the private retail sector: Can use of rapid diagnostic tests in drug shops improve treatment of patients? (Policy brief)


Interventions to improve providers' ability to diagnose and treat uncomplicated Malaria

Literature review from the REACT studies


Formation des travailleurs de santé à l’amélioration du dépistage du paludisme au Cameroun et au Nigéria

REACT policy brief


ACT Consortium Afghanistan Entry & Exit Interview Study

Summary results from qualitative analysis


Peer-reviewed publications

Would rational use of antibiotics be compromised in the era of test-based management of malaria?

Tropical Medicine and International Health


Willingness-to-pay for a rapid malaria diagnostic test and artemisinin-based combination therapy from private drug shops in Mukono district, Uganda

Health Policy and Planning


Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in southeastern Nigeria

Malaria Journal


Tinkering and Tailoring: Use of medicines and rapid diagnostic tests for malaria by private providers in Cambodia


The usefulness of rapid diagnostic tests in the new context of low Malaria transmission in Zanzibar

PLOS ONE


The PROCESS study: a protocol to evaluate the implementation, mechanisms of effect and context of an intervention to enhance public health centres in Tororo, Uganda

Implementation Science


The PRIME trial protocol: evaluating the impact of an intervention implemented in public health centres on management of malaria and health outcomes of children using a cluster-randomised design in Tororo, Uganda

Implementation Science


The need for new antibiotics

The Lancet


The feasibility of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in drug shops in Uganda

Malaria Journal


The development of effective behaviour change interventions to support the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests by Tanzanian clinicians

Implementation Science


Strengthening patient-centred communication in rural Ugandan health centres: A theory-driven evaluation within a cluster randomized trial

Evaluation


Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia

Malaria Journal


Shifting from presumptive to test-based management of malaria - Technical basis and implications for malaria control in Ghana

Ghana Medical Journal


Scale-up of Malaria rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: Challenges and perspectives in Sub-Saharan Africa

PLOS Medicine


REACT Summary of Qualitative results - Cameroon Sept 2010


Rapid diagnostic tests to improve treatment of malaria and other febrile illnesses: patient randomised effectiveness trial in primary care clinics in Afghanistan

British Medical Journal


Prevalence of Malaria parasitemia and purchase of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) among drug shop clients in two regions in Tanzania with ACT subsidies

PLOS ONE


Prescriber and patient-oriented behavioural interventions to improve use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Tanzania: Facility-based cluster randomised trial

BMC Medicine


Overdiagnosis and mistreatment of malaria among febrile patients at primary healthcare level in Afghanistan: observational study

British Medical Journal


Monitoring patient care through health facility exit interviews: an assessment of the Hawthorne effect in a trial of adherence to malaria treatment guidelines in Tanzania

BMC infectious diseases


Mind the gap: Knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria

Health Policy and Planning


Medicine sellers’ perspectives on their role in providing health care in North-West Cameroon: a qualitative study

Health Policy and Planning


Measuring patient adherence to Malaria treatment: A comparison of results from self-report and a customised electronic monitoring device

PLOS ONE


Management of febrile children under five years in hospitals and health centres of rural Ghana

Malaria Journal


Malaria prevalence and treatment of febrile patients at health facilities and medicine retailers in Cameroon

Tropical Medicine and International Health


Malaria “diagnosis” and diagnostics in Afghanistan

Qualitative Health Research


Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into registered drug shops in Uganda: lessons learned and policy implications

Malaria Journal


Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda: Design and implementation of a cluster randomized trial

Trials


Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests at registered drug shops in Uganda: Limitations of diagnostic testing in the reality of diagnosis

Social Science and Medicine


Improving access to Malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries

Health Affairs


Improving access to health care for malaria in Africa: a review of literature on what attracts patients

Malaria Journal


How can malaria rapid diagnostic tests achieve their potential? A qualitative study of a trial at health facilities in Ghana

Malaria Journal


Health facility utilisation changes during the introduction of community case management of malaria in South Western Uganda: An interrupted time series approach

PLOS ONE


Has Tanzania embraced the green leaf? Results from outlet and household surveys before and after implementation of the affordable medicines facility -Malaria

PLOS One


Getting antimalarials on target: impact of national roll-out of malaria rapid diagnostic tests on health facility treatment in three regions of Tanzania

Tropical Medicine and International Health


Field trial of three different Plasmodium vivaxdetecting rapid diagnostic tests with and without evaporative cool box storage in Afghanistan

Malaria Journal


Febrile illness management in children under five years of age: a qualitative pilot study on primary health care workers’ practices in Zanzibar

Malaria Journal


Effectiveness of provider and community interventions to improve treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria: A cluster randomized controlled trial

PLOS ONE


Effect of the Affordable Medicines Facility—malaria (AMFm) on the availability, price, and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapies in seven countries: a before-and-after analysis of outlet survey data

Lancet


Effect of test-based versus presumptive treatment of malaria in under-five children in rural Ghana - A cluster-randomised trial

PLOS ONE


Economic evaluation of a cluster randomized trial of interventions to improve health workers’ practice in diagnosing and treating uncomplicated Malaria in Cameroon

Value in Health


Differential prevalence of transporter polymorphisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic Falciparum Malaria infections in Uganda

Journal of Infectious Diseases


Designing and implementing interventions to change clinicians’ practice in the management of uncomplicated malaria: lessons from Cameroon

Malaria Journal


Composite endpoints for malaria case-management: not simplifying the picture?

Malaria Journal


Communicating the AMFm message: exploring the effect of communication and training interventions on private for-profit provider awareness and knowledge related to a multi-country anti-malarial subsidy intervention

Malaria Journal


Cluster randomized trial of text message reminders to retail staff in Tanzanian drug shops dispensing Artemether-Lumefantrine: Effect on dispenser knowledge and patient adherence

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene


Challenging logics of complex intervention trials: Community perspectives of a health care improvement intervention in rural Uganda

Social Science & Medicine


Behind the scenes of the PRIME intervention: designing a complex intervention to improve malaria care at public health centres in Uganda

Global Health Action


Basic or enhanced clinician training to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines: a cluster-randomised trial in two areas of Cameroon

The Lancet Global Health


Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

Tropical Medicine & International Health


Aspirations for quality health care in Uganda: How do we get there?

Human Resources for Health


Are Tanzanian patients attending public facilities or private retailers more likely to adhere to artemisinin-based combination therapy?

Malaria Journal


Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests: Findings from randomized trials in two contrasting areas of high and low malaria transmission in south western Uganda

Tropical Medicine and International Health


An evaluation of the clinical assessments of under-five febrile children presenting to primary health facilities in rural Ghana

PLoS ONE


An economic evaluation of home management of Malaria in Uganda: An interactive markov model

PLoS ONE


Afghanistan Entry & Exit Interview Study

Summary results from qualitative analysis


Accuracy of rapid tests for Malaria and treatment outcomes for Malaria and non-Malaria cases among under-five children in rural Ghana

PLoS ONE


Acceptability of Rapid Diagnostic Test-based management of Malaria among caregivers of under-five children in rural Ghana

PLoS ONE


A cost-effectiveness analysis of provider interventions to improve health worker practice in providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Trials Journal


A cost-effectiveness analysis of provider and community interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Nigeria: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Trials Journal


A cluster randomised trial introducing rapid diagnostic tests into registered drug shops in Uganda: Impact on appropriate treatment of Malaria

PLOS ONE


‘It puts life in us and we feel big’: shifts in the local health care system during the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda

Critical Public Health


‘As a clinician, you are not managing lab results, you are managing the patient’: How the enactment of malaria at health facilities in Cameroon compares with new WHO guidelines for the use of malaria tests

Social Science and Medicine


“Even if the test result is negative, they should be able to tell us what is wrong with us”: a qualitative study of patient expectations of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

Malaria Journal


Community case management of malaria: exploring support, capacity and motivation of community medicine distributors in Uganda

Health Policy and Planning


Projects

Use of rapid diagnostic tests to improve malaria treatment in the community in Uganda

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Trusting rapid diagnostic tests in Zanzibar

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


The PRIME trial: Improving health centres to reduce childhood malaria in Uganda

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Targeting ACT drugs: the TACT trial

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Strategies for expanding access to quality malaria diagnosis in south-central Asia where malaria incidence is low

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Restricting ACT drugs to patients with positive rapid diagnostic test results

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


PROCESS: Evaluating how the PRIME intervention worked in practice

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Perceptions and impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests in drug shops

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Introducing rapid diagnostic tests in drug shops to improve the targeting of malaria treatment

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


IMPACT 2: Evaluating policies in Tanzania to improve malaria diagnosis and treatment

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


How the use of rapid diagnostic tests influences clinicians’ decision to prescribe ACTs

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Costs and effects of strategies to improve malaria diagnosis and treatment in Nigeria

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Cost-effectiveness of interventions to support the introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Cameroon

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


Access and quality of malaria diagnosis and treatment in South-East Asia

[Project summary in Français / Português]

Scientific


News

World Malaria Report 2013: Major progress against disease 'still fragile'

Malaria deaths have declined by 45% globally since 2000 - thanks to prevention and control measures, political commitment and expanded funding. But improving access to diagnosis and


What are the challenges of scaling up rapid diagnostic tests in Sub-Saharan Africa?

The World Health Organization recommends using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and prescribing antimalarials only to patients who have a positive test result. As programmes gear


Webinar: Utility and performance of rapid diagnostic tests in areas with low malaria transmission

Recording of the webinar on 12 April 2016 now available.


Webinar: Cost-effectiveness of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in the private sector

The recording of the webinar from 6 April 2016 is now available.


Treatments in remote areas urgent to meet Millennium Development Goals

Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) is a strategy that enables those living beyond the reach of health facilities to access lifesaving treatments. It should be a national priority


The future of community case management of malaria

Motivating volunteers and strengthening support to health systems are critical if community interventions are to become the solution to improving access to primary health care, according


Testing for malaria reduces overprescription by over 70%

Using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in registered drug shops in a highly endemic region in Uganda substantially reduced overdiagnosis of malaria, improving the use of valuable


Testes para a malária reduzem a prescrição excessiva em mais de 70%

O uso de testes de diagnóstico rápido para a malária (RDT em inglês) em farmácias licenciadas numa região altamente endémica no Uganda


Providing training and supplies to health centres not enough to improve children's health

A trial in a high malaria transmission area in Uganda aimed to improve quality of care for patients with a fever. It showed small improvements in malaria case management, patient satisfaction


Progress in malaria leads to overuse of antibiotics

Improving malaria diagnosis decreased the waste of malaria drugs in patients who didn’t need them. Now, clinicians who don’t know what else is causing fever tend to overprescribe


Private sector not giving antimalarials to the people they should

A study in Tanzanian drug shops showed that most malaria patients did not receive an antimalarial and most people who obtained one didn’t in fact have malaria.


Patients with fever need better diagnosis and appropriate treatment

Many people who visit health clinics with fever in malaria endemic areas do not have malaria, but they still receive antimalarial drugs. A new report from the World Health Organization


Okutandikawo enkebera eyamangu mumatundiro geddagala kiyamba mukujanjaba omusujja gwensii

Okukozesebwa kwenkola eyamangu ekebera malaria (Malaria rapid diagnostic test-RDT) mumadduuka amatongole agatunda eddagala mukituundu ekimu mu Uganda ekikosedwa enyo malaria, kiyambye


New publication summarises ACT Consortium findings

"Answering key questions on malaria" is the lay summary of 25 research studies in 10 coutries in Africa and Asia. It is now available to the public at no cost, in English,


Message from our Director - end of 2013

As we wrap up the year, Professor David Schellenberg shares news of recent developments and plans for 2014 in the ACT Consortium.


Malaria testing not a simple fix in the private sector

Drug shops offering quick diagnostic tests for malaria can improve treatment, but regulation by authorities is also needed, researchers warn.


Malaria researchers launch free kit to develop diagnosis and treatment interventions

The malaria community can now use a Starter Kit to develop diagnosis and treatment interventions in endemic countries. ACT Consortium researchers launched the five resources on World


Malaria rapid diagnostic tests and research consortia: Day 2 at ECTMIH 2015

The role of community health workers in malaria diagnosis, the cost-effectiveness of rapid diagnostic tests and the contribution of research consortia to malaria policy were ACT Consortium


Malaria drug resistance a potential 'global disaster'

Malaria experts from the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region and key partners are reiterating a warning that anti-malarial drug resistance is an ever-growing challenge


Malaria diagnosis training manuals released

Health workers may now benefit from training manuals to best use malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The resource was developed during a clinical trial in Tanzania and the authors


Malaria control guidance in Ebola-affected countries

Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone have a high burden of malaria and together saw an estimated 6.6 million malaria cases and 20,000 deaths in 2013. WHO has issued guidance on temporary


Le gaspillage des antipaludéens par les personnels de santé au Nigéria coûte cher

Les prestataires de santé formés aux tests de dépistage rapide (RDT) du paludisme prescrivent encore des médicaments antipaludéens onéreux


Le diagnostic du paludisme permet de réduire la surprescription de plus de 70 %

Selon une récente étude parue dans la revue PLOS ONE, l'utilisation de tests de diagnostic rapides (TDR) dans les pharmacies homologuées dans une région


Job vacancy: Research Fellow in Health Economics

The ACT Consortium is seeking an enthusiastic Research Fellow to join the Health Economics and Systems Analysis Group (HESA) of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.


Interactive training halves malaria overdiagnosis and prevents wastage of drugs

Interactive training programmes for health workers could reduce overdiagnosis of malaria by half and help prevent valuable drugs from being wasted on patients who don’t have the


Improving malaria diagnosis in Asia

Clinicians who use rapid diagnostic tests instead of relying on patients’ symptoms are less likely to overprescribe malaria treatment. The tests are also better at detecting fatal


Improving delivery of malaria treatments

Professor David Schellenberg, Director of the ACT Consortium, discusses their work to improve the way artemisinin-based combination therapies are used to treat malaria, as well as the


Help us improve malaria diagnosis and treatment

The ACT Consortium will announce, in Addis Ababa, activities to help improve malaria diagnosis and treatment. The Ethiopian capital will host the first international summit on Social


Health workers wasting expensive malaria drugs in Nigeria

Health providers trained to perform malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are still prescribing valuable malaria medicines to patients who do not have malaria, according to new research


Global health annual meeting has one of highest ever attendance records

Approximately 3,700 delegates from almost 100 countries attended the 62nd annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) in Washington, DC.


Funcionários de saúde na Nigéria desperdiçam medicamentos para a malária dispendiosos

Os fornecedores de serviços de saúde formados para administrar testes de diagnóstico rápido da malária (RDT) continuam a prescrever os valiosos medicamentos


Effective malaria control dramatically reduces deaths

The number of people dying from malaria has fallen dramatically since 2000 and malaria cases are also steadily declining, according to the World Malaria Report 2014. Experts highlight


Diagnostics in malaria treatment and control: Day 1 at ECTMIH 2015

On the first day of the European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health in Basel, Switzerland, the ACT Consortium director and investigators presented findings from


Better diagnosis, better malaria control: Event on 20 April 2016

Join us in London or online to commemorate World Malaria Day in an interactive session with free resources and a discussion about the importance of malaria diagnosis and the challenges


ASTMH 2014: Malaria highlights

Bill Gates' announcement to increase malaria funding, strategic plans from the WHO to eliminate malaria and ACT Consortium research results were some of the malaria contributions seen


ACT Consortium researchers present at ASTMH 2014

The 63rd annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene takes place between 2-6 November in New Orleans, USA. Find out which research results we will present


Access, targeting, safety and quality of ACT drugs at malaria conference

Delegates debated policy implications for the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the public and private health sectors. ACT Consortium members presented research results


'There are more medicines and diagnostic tools, but still no clean water'

Malaria interventions are unlikely to improve health of communities unless the root causes of dysfunctional health systems are tackled, an ACT Consortium researcher told members of